Depression

Depression is a mental health condition that causes persistent feeling of sadness or lonlinness that do not go away.Depression can affect any age group.

Depression is the main cause of disability worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It can affect all age group(adults, adolescents, and children.)

Depression symptoms

  • Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies or activities
  • Decreased energy, fatigue, or being “slowed down”
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
  • Difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
  • Appetite and/or weight changes
  • Thoughts of death or suicide or suicide attempts
  • loss of sexual desire
  • agitation, restlessness, and pacing up and down
  • slowed movement and speech
  • feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decision
    • Symptoms must last at least two weeks for a diagnoSymptoms must last at least two weeks for a diagnosis of depression.
    • Also, medical conditions (e.g., thyroid problems, a brain tumor or vitamin deficiency) can mimic symptoms of depression so it is important to rule out general medical causes.
    • Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given year. And one in six people (16.6%) will experience depression at some time in their life. Depression can start at any time, but it appears mostly during the late teens to mid-20s. Women are more likely than men to experience depression.
    • Depression causes

There are many possible causes, and sometimes, various factors combine to trigger symptoms.

Factors that are likely to play a role include:

  • Biochemistry: Differences in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression.
  • Genetics: Depression can run in families. For example, if one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70 percent chance of having the illness sometime in life.
  • Personality: People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be more likely to experience depression.
  • Environmental factors: Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make some people more vulnerable to depression
  • Mental health condition like bipolar disorder can also cause depression
  • Depression can occur along with other serious illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease.

Depression treament

Depression is treatable, and managing symptoms usually involves three components:

Support: This can range from discussing practical solutions and possible causes to educating family members.

Psychotherapy: also known as Talking therapies which involve speaking to a mental health professional about problems or issues that may be causing concern. Types of talking therapies include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), counselling and psychotherapy, and your GP can advise you about which approach you may find most helpful.

Medication treatment: A doctor may prescribe Antidepressants.These can be taken on their own or in conjunction with talking therapies.

There are various types of antidepressants available and you can speak with your doctor about what work best for you. If one medication does not work, you may be prescribed something else. It is important that you take the medicine for the length of time recommended by your doctor.

Many people with depression recover after following a treatment plan. Even with effective treatment, a relapse may occur.

To prevent relapse, people who take medication for depression should continue with treatment — even after symptoms improve or go away — for as long as their doctor advises.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat. Men can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat. People with chlamydia usually don’t have symptoms, so most people don’t know they have it. If you do notice signs of chlamydia, get tested.

chlamydia is curable but early testing is very important because It can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system. This can make it difficult or impossible for her to get pregnant later on. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb).

How do you get chlamydia?

Chlamydia is usually spread during sexual contact with someone who has the infection. The main ways people get chlamydia are from having vaginal sex and anal sex, but it can also be spread through oral sex.

Rarely, you can get chlamydia by touching your eye if you have infected fluids on your hand. Chlamydia can also be spread to a baby during birth if the mother has it.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

chlamydia symptoms, usually show up within 1 to 3 weeks after contact.Chlamydia doesn’t usually cause any symptoms. So you may not realize that you have it. People with chlamydia who have no symptoms can still pass the disease to others. If you do have symptoms, they may not appear until several weeks after you have sex with an infected partner.

Symptoms in women include

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge, which may have a strong smell
  • Bleeding between periods
  • painful periods
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Pain during

Symptoms in men include

  • Discharge from your penis
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Burning or itching around the opening of your penis
  • Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (although this is less common)
  • If the chlamydia infects the rectum (in men or women), it can cause rectal pain, discharge, and/or bleeding.If the infection spreads, you might get lower abdominal pain, , nausea, or fever.

How is chlamydia diagnosed?

  • urine test. This is the most common. You urinate (pee) into a cup. Your urine is then tested for chlamydia.
  • swab test. Your doctor uses a cotton swab to take a fluid sample from an infected place (vagina, cervix, rectum, or throat). The fluid is then tested for chlamydia
  • Chlamydia treatment
  • chlamydia is curable. since the infection is caused by bacterial it is treated with antibiotics. Azithromycin and Doxycyline is a common antibiotic drugs that is used to treat chlamydia. other antibiotics may also be given no matter which antibiotic is prescribed, dosage instructions should be followed carefully to make sure the infection clears up fully. This can take up to two weeks, even with the single-dose medications.
  • During the treatment time, it’s important not to have sex. It’s still possible to transmit and contract chlamydia if exposed again, even if you’ve treated a previous infection.
  • Avoid sex again until you and your sex partner(s) have completed treatment.

Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is an infection of your tonsils, two masses of tissue at the back of your throat.

Your tonsils act as filters, trapping germs that could enter your airways and cause infection. They also make antibodies to fight infection. But sometimes, they get overwhelmed by bacteria or viruses. This can make them swollen and inflamed.

Tonsillitis can occur at any age and is a common childhood illness. It’s most often diagnosed in children from preschool age through their mid-teens. 

Causes of Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is caused by either a viral or bacterial infection of the tonsils. Most cases of tonsillitis are caused by viruses. There are many different viruses that can cause tonsillitis, including

adenovirus,

enterovirus,

influenza virus,

parainfluenza virus,

Epstein-Barr virus (mononucleosis),

cytomegalovirus,

measles virus, and

herpes simplex

Bacterial tonsillitis is most often caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the organism that causes strep throat.

Tonsillitis symptoms

Possible symptoms of tonsillitis include:

a very sore throat

Difficulty or pain when swallowing

Bad breath

Fever

Chills

Earaches

Stomachache

Headache

A stiff neck

jaw and neck tenderness from swollen lymph nodes

tonsils that have white or yellow spot

Treatment Of Tonsilitis

Because most cases of tonsillitis are caused by viruses, your body will fight off the infection and the illness will run its course, antibiotics are not necessary. However, in people with bacterial tonsillitis, antibiotics are generally prescribed. 

Tonsillitis may sometimes result in more serious complications. People should see a doctor if they experience new symptoms or if their original symptoms persist or become worse.

Is tonsillitis contagious?

Although tonsillitis is not contagious, the viruses and bacteria that cause it are contagious. Frequent handwasing and the use of sanitizer can help prevent spreading or catching the infections.