Congestive Heart Failure

What is congestive heart failure?

Heart failure describes the inability or failure of the heart to meet the needs of organs and tissues for oxygen and nutrients. This decrease in cardiac output, the amount of blood that the heart pumps, is not adequate to circulate the blood returning to the heart from the body and lungs, causing the fluid (mainly water) to leak from capillary blood vessels. This leads to symptoms that may include shortness of breath, weakness, and swelling.

Understanding blood flow in the heart and body

The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs while the left side pumps blood to the rest of the body. Blood from the body enters the right atrium through the vena cava. It then flows into the right ventricle where it is pumped to the lungs through the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the lungs, oxygen is loaded onto red blood cells and returns to the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary veins. Blood then flows into the left ventricle where it is pumped to the organs and tissues of the body. Oxygen is downloaded from red blood cells into the various organs while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, is added to be removed in the lungs. Blood then returns to the right atrium to start the cycle again. The pulmonary veins are unusual in that they carry oxygenated blood, while the pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood. This is a reversal of duties versus the roles of veins and arteries in the rest of the body.

Understanding blood flow in the heart and body.

Left heart failure occurs when the left ventricle cannot pump blood to the body and fluid backs up and leaks into the lungs causing shortness of breath. Right heart failure occurs when the right ventricle cannot adequately pump blood to the lungs. Blood and fluid may back up in the veins that deliver blood to the heart. This can cause fluid to leak into tissues and organs.

Understanding blood flow in the heart and body.

Left heart failure occurs when the left ventricle cannot pump blood to the body and fluid backs up and leaks into the lungs causing shortness of breath. Right heart failure occurs when the right ventricle cannot adequately pump blood to the lungs. Blood and fluid may back up in the veins that deliver blood to the heart. This can cause fluid to leak into tissues and organs.

It is important to know that both sides of the heart may fail to function adequately at the same time and this is called biventricular heart failure. This often occurs since the most common cause of right heart failure is left heart failure.

What are the signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure?

Shortness of breath

The hallmark and most common symptom of left heart failure is shortness of breath and may occur.

  1. While at rest
  2. With activity or exertion
  3. While lying flat (orthopnea)
  4. While awakening the person from sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea); or
  5. Due to fluid (water, mainly) accumulation in the lungs or the inability of the heart to be efficient enough to pump blood to the organs of the body when called upon in times of exertion or stress.

Right heart failure, left heart failure, or both

Chest Pain

  1. Chest pain or angina may be associated, especially if the underlying cause of the failure is coronary heart disease.
  1. People with right heart failure leak fluid into the tissue and organs that deliver blood to the right heart through the vena cava.
  2. Backpressure in capillary blood vessels causes them to leak water into space between cells and commonly the fluid can be found in the lowest parts of the body.
  3. Gravity causes fluid to accumulate in the feet and ankles but as more fluid accumulates, it may creep up to involve all of the lower legs.
  4. Fluid can also accumulate within the liver causing it to swell (hepatomegaly) and within the abdominal cavity (ascites).
  5. Ascites and hepatomegaly may make the patient feel bloated, nauseated, and have abdominal pain with the feeling of distension.
  6. Depending upon their underlying illness and the clinical situation, patients may have symptoms of right heart failure, left heart failure, or both.

What causes congestive heart failure?

Many disease processes can impair the pumping efficiency of the heart to cause congestive heart failure. In the United States,. The most common causes of congestive heart failure are:

  • Coronary artery disease
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Longstanding alcohol abuse
  • Disorders of the disorders of the heart valves
  • Unknown (idiopathic) causes, such as after recovery from myocarditis

Less common causes of congestive heart failure include:

  • Viral infections of the stiffening of the heart muscle
  • Thyroid disorders
  • Heart rhythm abnormalities

In people with congestive heart failure with underlying heart disease, taking certain medications could lead to the development or worsening of the lung disease. Moreover, drugs that can cause sodium retention or affect the power of the heart muscle. Examples of such medications are the commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which include ibuprofen (Motrin and others) and naproxen (Aleve and others) as well as certain steroids, some medication for type 2 diabetes, for example, rosiglitazone (Avandia) or pioglitazone (Actos), and some calcium channel blockers (CCBs).

Paralysis

What is paralysis?

Paralysis is a loss of strength in and control over a muscle or group of muscles in a part of the body. Most of the time, this is not due to a problem with the muscles themselves. It is more likely due to a problem somewhere along the chain of nerve cells that runs from the body part to your brain and back again. These nerve cells deliver the signals for your muscles to move.

There are many types and degrees of paralysis. The condition can be:

  • Partial, when you still have some control of your muscles (sometimes called paresis).
  • Complete, when you can’t move your muscles at all.
  • Permanent, when muscle control never comes back.
  • Temporary, when some or all muscle control returns.
  • Flaccid, when the muscles get flabby and shrink.
  • Spastic, when the muscles are tight and hard and jerk around oddly (spasm).

Paralysis can occur in any part of the body and is either localized, when it affects only one part of the body, or generalized, when it affects a wider area of the body.

Localized paralysis often affects areas such as the face, hands, feet, or vocal cords.

Generalized paralysis is broken down based on how much of the body is paralyzed:

  • Monoplegia affects one limb only, such as one arm or one leg.
  • Hemiplegia affects one side of the body, such as the leg and arm of the same side of the body.
  • Diplegia affects the same area on both sides of the body, such as both arms or both sides of the face.
  • Paraplegia affects both legs and sometimes parts of the trunk.
  • Quadriplegia affects both arms and both legs and sometimes the entire area from the neck down. The function of the heart, lungs, and other organs might also be affected.

What causes paralysis?

Muscle movement is controlled by trigger signals relayed from the brain. When any part of the relay system — such as the brain, spinal cord, nerves, or junction between the nerve and the muscle — is damaged, the signals to move do not make it through to the muscles and paralysis results. There are many ways the relay system can be damaged.

A person can be born with paralysis due to a birth defect such as spina bifida, which occurs when the brain, spinal cord, and/or the covering that protects them do not form the right way. In most cases, people get paralysis as the result of an accident or a medical condition that affects the way muscles and nerves function. The most common causes of paralysis include:

  • Stroke
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Head injury
  • Multiple sclerosis

Some other causes include:

  • Cerebral palsy
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Toxins/poisons
  • ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease

What are the symptoms of paralysis?

Symptoms of paralysis may vary based on the cause, but are often easy to spot. A person born paralyzed due to a birth defect, or paralyzed suddenly due to a stroke or spinal cord injury, will be partially or totally unable to move the affected body parts. At the same time, the person may experience muscle stiffness and decreased feeling in the affected body parts.

A person who becomes paralyzed due to a medical condition might lose muscle control and feeling slowly. The person might feel tingling or numbing sensations or muscle cramps before losing control of his or her muscles.

What other problems can occur with paralysis?

Because paralysis can happen to any muscle or group of muscles, many body functions can be affected. Some of the problems that can occur along with paralysis include:

  • Problems with blood flow, breathing, and heart rate
  • Changes in the normal function of organs, glands, and other tissues
  • Changes to muscles, joints, and bones
  • Skin injuries and pressure sores
  • Blood clots in the legs
  • Loss of urine and bowel control
  • Sexual problems
  • Problems speaking or swallowing
  • Behavior and mood changes

How does the doctor diagnose paralysis?

Diagnosing paralysis is often easy to do because the main symptom — loss of muscle control in a body area — is obvious. An important part of the diagnosis is to determine the cause of the paralysis. This can be relatively straightforward if the paralysis occurs after an event such as a stroke or spinal cord injury. Sometimes, the doctor might want to learn more about the injury that’s causing the paralysis, the degree of the paralysis, and/or the state of the nerves involved. To do that, the doctor might use one or more of these tests:

  • X-ray: This test uses small amounts of radiation to produce detailed images of the dense structures inside the body, such as the bones.
  • CT scan: CT uses computers to combine many X-ray images into cross-sectional views of the inside of the body.
  • MRI: MRI uses a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer to create clear images of the body.
  • Myelography: This test uses a contrast dye that is injected into the spinal canal to make the nerves show up very clearly on an X-ray, CT scan, or MRI.
  • Electromyography (EMG): This test is used to measure the electrical activity in the muscles and nerves.
  • Spinal tap: A long needle is injected into the spine to collect spinal fluid.

How is paralysis treated?

Currently, there is no cure for paralysis itself. In certain cases, some or all muscle control and feeling returns on its own or after treatment of the cause for the paralysis. For example, spontaneous recovery often occurs in cases of Bell’s palsy, a temporary paralysis of the face. It might also occur to some extent with treatment after a stroke. Sometimes, treatment is important to prevent further worsening of paralysis, for example in multiple sclerosis.

Rehabilitation is often recommended to address problems that can occur as a consequence of the paralysis, to enable the paralyzed person to live as independently as possible and to provide the person with a high quality of life. Some of the rehabilitation treatments used for people with paralysis include:

  • Physical therapy uses treatments such as heat, massage, and exercise to stimulate nerves and muscles.
  • Occupational therapy concentrates on ways to perform activities of daily living.
  • Mobility aids include manual and electric wheelchairs and scooters.
  • Supportive devices include braces, canes, and walkers.
  • Assistive technology such as voice-activated computers, lighting systems, and telephones.
  • Adaptive equipment such as special eating utensils and controls for driving a car.

What is the outlook for people with paralysis?

The evolution of paralysis depends on the cause, but in most cases the paralysis cannot be fully reversed. Paralysis, especially sudden paralysis, leads to many emotions.

For this reason, depression is common in people with paralysis. Help is available to cope with this difficult life transition. Having paralysis often requires making major changes to your way of life. People with some types of paralysis, such as monoplegia, hemiplegia, and paraplegia, can usually lead independent and active lives with the help of mobility aids and supportive and adaptive devices. While people with quadriplegia need lifelong care and support from others, they can still live happy and fulfilling lives.

It is important for people with paralysis to keep a healthy lifestyle. This includes remaining as physically active as possible, and exercising on a regular basis. Exercises can be adapted to take into account the limitations related to paralysis.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Call your healthcare provider if you experience any numbing or tingling feelings in your muscles, or if you suddenly cannot move a muscle or body part.

Also, call 9-1-1 right away if you have any of the signs of a stroke. A stroke is a medical emergency and effective treatments are available, but they must be started within a few hours after stroke symptoms begin.

The American Stroke Association uses the word F.A.S.T. as a guide to identify a stroke and call 9-1-1:

  • F: Face drooping
  • A: Arm weakness
  • S: Speech difficulty
  • T: Time to call 9-1-1

These other symptoms, all of which come on suddenly, may appear separately or in combination with F.A.S.T. signs:

  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech.
  • Sudden numbness of face, arm, or leg, usually on one side of the body.
  • Sudden trouble with vision in one of both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination.
  • Sudden onset of headache with no known cause.

High blood pressure (hypertension)

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.

Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure. A blood pressure reading is given in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). It has two numbers.

You can have high blood pressure for years without any symptoms. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure, you can work with your doctor to control it.

You can have high blood pressure for years without any symptoms. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure, you can work with your doctor to control it.

Causes

There are two types of high blood pressure.

Primary (essential) hypertension

For most adults, there’s no identifiable cause of high blood pressure. This type of high blood pressure, called primary (essential) hypertension, tends to develop gradually over many years.

Secondary hypertension

Some people have high blood pressure caused by an underlying condition. This type of high blood pressure, called secondary hypertension, tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than does primary hypertension. Various conditions and medications can lead to secondary hypertension, including:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Kidney disease
  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Thyroid problems
  • Certain defects you’re born with (congenital) in blood vessels
  • Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs
  • Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines

Risk factors

High blood pressure has many risk factors, including:

  • Age. The risk of high blood pressure increases as you age. Until about age 64, high blood pressure is more common in men. Women are more likely to develop high blood pressure after age 65.
  • Race. High blood pressure is particularly common among people of African heritage, often developing at an earlier age than it does in whites. Serious complications, such as stroke, heart attack and kidney failure, also are more common in people of African heritage.
  • Family history. High blood pressure tends to run in families.
  • Being overweight or obese. The more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. As the amount of blood blow through your blood vessels increases, so does the pressure on your artery walls.
  • Not being physically active. People who are inactive tend to have higher heart rates. The higher your heart rate, the harder your heart must work with each contraction and the stronger the force on your arteries. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight.
  • Using tobacco. Not only does smoking or chewing tobacco immediately raise your blood pressure temporarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls. This can cause your arteries to narrow and increase your risk of heart disease. Secondhand smoke also can increase your heart disease risk.
  • Too much salt (sodium) in your diet. Too much sodium in your diet can cause your body to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure.
  • Too little potassium in your diet. Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells. A proper balance of potassium is critical for good heart health. If you don’t get enough potassium in your diet, or you lose too much potassium due to dehydration or other health conditions, sodium can build up in your blood.
  • Drinking too much alcohol. Over time, heavy drinking can damage your heart. Having more than one drink a day for women and more than two drinks a day for men may affect your blood pressure.If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men. One drink equals 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor.
  • Stress. High levels of stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure. Stress-related habits such as eating more, using tobacco or drinking alcohol can lead to further increases in blood pressure.
  • Certain chronic conditions. Certain chronic conditions also may increase your risk of high blood pressure, including kidney disease, diabetes and sleep apnea.

Sometimes pregnancy contributes to high blood pressure as well.

Although high blood pressure is most common in adults, children may be at risk, too. For some children, high blood pressure is caused by problems with the kidneys or heart. But for a growing number of kids, poor lifestyle habits — such as an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise — contribute to high blood pressure.

Complications

The excessive pressure on your artery walls caused by high blood pressure can damage your blood vessels as well as your organs. The higher your blood pressure and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the greater the damage.

Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to complications including:

  • Heart attack or stroke. High blood pressure can cause hardening and thickening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack, stroke or other complications.
  • Aneurysm. Increased blood pressure can cause your blood vessels to weaken and bulge, forming an aneurysm. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can be life-threatening.
  • Heart failure. To pump blood against the higher pressure in your vessels, the heart has to work harder. This causes the walls of the heart’s pumping chamber to thicken (left ventricular hypertrophy). Eventually, the thickened muscle may have a hard time pumping enough blood to meet your body’s needs, which can lead to heart failure.
  • Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys. This can prevent these organs from functioning normally.
  • Thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes. This can result in vision loss.
  • Metabolic syndrome. This syndrome is a group of disorders of your body’s metabolism, including increased waist size, high triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol), high blood pressure and high insulin levels. These conditions make you more likely to develop diabetes, heart disease and stroke.
  • Trouble with memory or understanding. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may also affect your ability to think, remember and learn. Trouble with memory or understanding concepts is more common in people with high blood pressure.
  • Dementia. Narrowed or blocked arteries can limit blood flow to the brain, leading to a certain type of dementia (vascular dementia). A stroke that interrupts blood flow to the brain also can cause vascular dementia.

Everything You Need To Know About Gout?

What is gout?

Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis that is very painful. It usually affects one joint at a time (often the big toe joint). There are times when symptoms get worse, known as flares, and times when there are no symptoms, known as remission. Repeated bouts of gout can lead to gouty arthritis, a worsening form of arthritis.

There is no cure for gout, but you can effectively treat and manage the condition with medication and self-management strategies.

What are the signs and symptoms of gout?

Gout flares start suddenly and can last days or weeks. These flares are followed by long periods of remission—weeks, months, or years—without symptoms before another flare begins. Gout usually occurs in only one joint at a time. It is often found in the big toe. Along with the big toe, joints that are commonly affected are the lesser toe joints, the ankle, and the knee.

Symptoms in the affected joint(s) may include:

  • Pain, usually intense
  • Swelling
  • Redness
  • Heat

What causes gout?

Gout is caused by a condition known as hyperuricemia, where there is too much uric acid in the body. The body makes uric acid when it breaks down purines, which are found in your body and the foods you eat. When there is too much uric acid in the body, uric acid crystals (monosodium urate) can build up in joints, fluids, and tissues within the body. Hyperuricemia does not always cause gout, and hyperuricemia without gout symptoms does not need to be treated.

What increases your chances for gout?

The following make it more likely that you will develop hyperuricemia, which causes gout:

  • Being male
  • Being obese
  • Having certain health conditions, including:
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
    • Insulin resistance
    • Metabolic syndrome
    • Diabetes
    • Poor kidney function
  • Using certain medications, such as diuretics (water pills).
  • Drinking alcohol. The risk of gout is greater as alcohol intake goes up.
  • Eating or drinking food and drinks high in fructose (a type of sugar).
  • Having a diet high in purines, which the body breaks down into uric acid. Purine-rich foods include red meat, organ meat, and some kinds of seafood, such as anchovies, sardines, mussels, scallops, trout, and tuna. Read More

Depression

Depression is a mental health condition that causes persistent feeling of sadness or lonlinness that do not go away.Depression can affect any age group.

Depression is the main cause of disability worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It can affect all age group(adults, adolescents, and children.)

Depression symptoms

  • Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies or activities
  • Decreased energy, fatigue, or being “slowed down”
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
  • Difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
  • Appetite and/or weight changes
  • Thoughts of death or suicide or suicide attempts
  • loss of sexual desire
  • agitation, restlessness, and pacing up and down
  • slowed movement and speech
  • feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decision
    • Symptoms must last at least two weeks for a diagnoSymptoms must last at least two weeks for a diagnosis of depression.
    • Also, medical conditions (e.g., thyroid problems, a brain tumor or vitamin deficiency) can mimic symptoms of depression so it is important to rule out general medical causes.
    • Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given year. And one in six people (16.6%) will experience depression at some time in their life. Depression can start at any time, but it appears mostly during the late teens to mid-20s. Women are more likely than men to experience depression.
    • Depression causes

There are many possible causes, and sometimes, various factors combine to trigger symptoms.

Factors that are likely to play a role include:

  • Biochemistry: Differences in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression.
  • Genetics: Depression can run in families. For example, if one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70 percent chance of having the illness sometime in life.
  • Personality: People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be more likely to experience depression.
  • Environmental factors: Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make some people more vulnerable to depression
  • Mental health condition like bipolar disorder can also cause depression
  • Depression can occur along with other serious illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease.

Depression treament

Depression is treatable, and managing symptoms usually involves three components:

Support: This can range from discussing practical solutions and possible causes to educating family members.

Psychotherapy: also known as Talking therapies which involve speaking to a mental health professional about problems or issues that may be causing concern. Types of talking therapies include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), counselling and psychotherapy, and your GP can advise you about which approach you may find most helpful.

Medication treatment: A doctor may prescribe Antidepressants.These can be taken on their own or in conjunction with talking therapies.

There are various types of antidepressants available and you can speak with your doctor about what work best for you. If one medication does not work, you may be prescribed something else. It is important that you take the medicine for the length of time recommended by your doctor.

Many people with depression recover after following a treatment plan. Even with effective treatment, a relapse may occur.

To prevent relapse, people who take medication for depression should continue with treatment — even after symptoms improve or go away — for as long as their doctor advises.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial called Chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum, or throat. Men can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum, or throat. People with chlamydia usually don’t have symptoms, so most people don’t know they have it. If you do notice signs of chlamydia, get tested.

chlamydia is curable but early testing is very important because It can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system. This can make it difficult or impossible for her to get pregnant later on. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb).

How do you get chlamydia?

Chlamydia is usually spread during sexual contact with someone who has the infection. The main ways people get chlamydia are from having vaginal sex and anal sex, but it can also be spread through oral sex.

Rarely, you can get chlamydia by touching your eye if you have infected fluids on your hand. Chlamydia can also be spread to a baby during birth if the mother has it.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

chlamydia symptoms, usually show up within 1 to 3 weeks after contact.Chlamydia doesn’t usually cause any symptoms. So you may not realize that you have it. People with chlamydia who have no symptoms can still pass the disease to others. If you do have symptoms, they may not appear until several weeks after you have sex with an infected partner.

Symptoms in women include

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge, which may have a strong smell
  • Bleeding between periods
  • painful periods
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Pain during

Symptoms in men include

  • Discharge from your penis
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Burning or itching around the opening of your penis
  • Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (although this is less common)
  • If the chlamydia infects the rectum (in men or women), it can cause rectal pain, discharge, and/or bleeding.If the infection spreads, you might get lower abdominal pain, , nausea, or fever.

How is chlamydia diagnosed?

  • urine test. This is the most common. You urinate (pee) into a cup. Your urine is then tested for chlamydia.
  • swab test. Your doctor uses a cotton swab to take a fluid sample from an infected place (vagina, cervix, rectum, or throat). The fluid is then tested for chlamydia
  • Chlamydia treatment
  • chlamydia is curable. since the infection is caused by bacterial it is treated with antibiotics. Azithromycin and Doxycyline is a common antibiotic drugs that is used to treat chlamydia. other antibiotics may also be given no matter which antibiotic is prescribed, dosage instructions should be followed carefully to make sure the infection clears up fully. This can take up to two weeks, even with the single-dose medications.
  • During the treatment time, it’s important not to have sex. It’s still possible to transmit and contract chlamydia if exposed again, even if you’ve treated a previous infection.
  • Avoid sex again until you and your sex partner(s) have completed treatment.

Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is an infection of your tonsils, two masses of tissue at the back of your throat.

Your tonsils act as filters, trapping germs that could enter your airways and cause infection. They also make antibodies to fight infection. But sometimes, they get overwhelmed by bacteria or viruses. This can make them swollen and inflamed.

Tonsillitis can occur at any age and is a common childhood illness. It’s most often diagnosed in children from preschool age through their mid-teens. 

Causes of Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is caused by either a viral or bacterial infection of the tonsils. Most cases of tonsillitis are caused by viruses. There are many different viruses that can cause tonsillitis, including

adenovirus,

enterovirus,

influenza virus,

parainfluenza virus,

Epstein-Barr virus (mononucleosis),

cytomegalovirus,

measles virus, and

herpes simplex

Bacterial tonsillitis is most often caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the organism that causes strep throat.

Tonsillitis symptoms

Possible symptoms of tonsillitis include:

a very sore throat

Difficulty or pain when swallowing

Bad breath

Fever

Chills

Earaches

Stomachache

Headache

A stiff neck

jaw and neck tenderness from swollen lymph nodes

tonsils that have white or yellow spot

Treatment Of Tonsilitis

Because most cases of tonsillitis are caused by viruses, your body will fight off the infection and the illness will run its course, antibiotics are not necessary. However, in people with bacterial tonsillitis, antibiotics are generally prescribed. 

Tonsillitis may sometimes result in more serious complications. People should see a doctor if they experience new symptoms or if their original symptoms persist or become worse.

Is tonsillitis contagious?

Although tonsillitis is not contagious, the viruses and bacteria that cause it are contagious. Frequent handwasing and the use of sanitizer can help prevent spreading or catching the infections.