Mastitis

Mastitis occurs when bacteria found on skin or saliva enter breast tissue through a milk duct or crack in the skin. Milk ducts are a part of the anatomy of the breast that carry milk to the nipples. All genders have milk ducts and can get mastitis.

Infection also happens when milk backs up due to a blocked milk duct or problematic breastfeeding technique. Bacteria grow in the stagnant milk. These factors increase the risk of a nursing mom developing mastitis:

  • Cracked, sore nipples.
  • Improper latching technique or using only one position to breastfeed.
  • Wearing tight-fitting bras that restrict milk flow.
  • Applying herbs to the breast to facilitate breast milk production.

What are the symptoms of mastitis?

Many people with mastitis develop a wedge-shaped red mark on one breast. (Rarely, mastitis affects both breasts.) The breast may be swollen and feel hot or tender to touch. You may also experience:

How is mastitis diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will do a physical exam and check your symptoms to make a diagnosis. If you aren’t breastfeeding, you may get a mammogram or other tests to rule out breast cancer or a different breast condition.

How is mastitis managed or treated?

Your healthcare provider may prescribe an oral antibiotic to treat mastitis. The infection should clear up within 10 days but may last as long as three weeks. Mastitis sometimes goes away without medical treatment.

To reduce pain and inflammation, you can:

  • Apply warm, moist compresses to the affected breast every few hours or take a warm shower.
  • Breastfeed every two hours or more often to keep milk flowing through the milk ducts. If needed, use a breast pump to express milk between feedings.
  • Drink plenty of fluids and rest when possible.
  • Massage the area using a gentle circular motion starting at the outside of the affected area and working in toward the nipple.
  • Take over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
  • Wear a supportive bra that doesn’t compress the breast.

What are the complications of mastitis?

If left untreated, a breast infection like mastitis can lead to a breast abscess. This type of abscess typically needs to be surgically drained. If you have an abscess that needs to be drained, your healthcare provider will perform minor surgery or use a small needle to drain the pus. Often, you may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antibiotics. A breast abscess will not go away with warm compresses.

Prevention

Breastfeeding moms can take these steps to lower their chances of getting mastitis:

  • Air out your nipples after nursing.
  • Don’t wear nursing pads or tight-fitting bras that keep nipples moist.
  • Nurse your baby on one side, allowing the breast to empty, before switching to the other breast.
  • Switch up breastfeeding positions to fully empty all areas of the breast.
  • Use your finger to break your baby’s suction on a nipple if you need to stop a feeding.

When should I call the doctor?

You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Breast pain.
  • Changes in the way your breasts look or feel.
  • Newly discovered lump.
  • Nipple discharge.
  • Worsening of mastitis symptoms after 24 hours of antibiotics or at-home treatment.

‘Miraculous’ mosquito hack cuts dengue by 77%

They used mosquitoes infected with “miraculous” bacteria that reduce the insect’s ability to spread dengue.

The trial took place in Yogyakarta city, Indonesia, and is being expanded in the hope of eradicating the virus.

The World Mosquito Programme team says it could be a solution to a virus that has gone around the world.

Few people had heard of dengue 50 years ago, but it has been a relentless slow-burning pandemic and cases have increased dramatically.

In 1970, only nine countries had faced severe dengue outbreaks, now there are up to 400 million infections a year.

Dengue is commonly known as “break-bone fever” because it causes severe pain in muscles and bones and explosive outbreaks can overwhelm hospitals.

The enemy of my enemy

The trial used mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria. One of the researchers, Dr Katie Anders, describes them as “naturally miraculous”.

Wolbachia doesn’t harm the mosquito, but it camps out in the same parts of its body that the dengue virus needs to get into.

The bacteria compete for resources and make it much harder for dengue virus to replicate, so the mosquito is less likely to cause an infection when it bites again.

The trial used five million mosquito eggs infected with Wolbachia. Eggs were placed in buckets of water in the city every two weeks and the process of building up an infected population of mosquitoes took nine months.

Yogyakarta was split into 24 zones and the mosquitoes were released only in half of them.

The results, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed a 77% reduction in cases and an 86% reduction in people needing hospital care when the insects were released.

“It’s very exciting, it’s better than we could have hoped for to be honest,” Dr Anders told the BBC.

The technique has been so successful the mosquitoes have been released across the whole city and the project is moving to surrounding areas with the aim of eradicating dengue in the region.

Dr Anders, who is also the director of impact assessment at the World Mosquito Programme, said: “This result is groundbreaking.

“We think it can have an even greater impact when it is deployed at scale in large cities around the world, where dengue is a huge public health problem.”

Wolbachia are also spectacularly manipulative and can alter the fertility of their hosts to ensure they are passed on to the next generation of mosquitoes.

It means once Wolbachia has been established, it should stick around for a long time and continue to protect against dengue infection.

This is in sharp contrast to other control methods – such as insecticides or releasing large numbers of sterile male mosquitoes – that need to be kept up in order to suppress the blood-suckers. BBC News.


Buruli ulcer

Buruli ulcer  is an infectious disease characterized by the development of painless open wounds. The disease is limited to certain areas of the world, most cases occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa and Australia. The first sign of infection is a small painless nodule or area of swelling, typically on the arms or legs. The nodule grows larger over days to weeks, eventually forming an open ulcer. Deep ulcers can cause scarring of muscles and tendons, resulting in permanent disability.

Causes

Buruli ulcer is caused by skin infection with bacteria called Mycobacterium ulcerans. The mechanism by which M. ulcerans is transmitted from the environment to humans is not known, but may involve the bite of an aquatic insect or the infection of open wounds. Once in the skin, M. ulcerans grows and releases the toxin mycolactone, which blocks the normal function of cells, resulting in tissue death and immune suppression at the site of the ulcer.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating Buruli ulcer with a combination of the antibiotics rifampicin and clarithromycin. With antibiotic administration and proper wound care, small ulcers typically heal within six months. Deep ulcers and those on sensitive body sites may require surgery to remove dead tissue or repair scarred muscles or joints. Even with proper treatment, Buruli ulcer can take months to heal. Regular cleaning and dressing of wounds aids healing and prevents secondary infections.

Signs and symptoms

The first sign of Buruli ulcer is a painless swollen bump on the arm or leg, often similar in appearance to an insect bite. Sometimes the swollen area instead appears as a patch of firm, raised skin about three centimeters across called a “plaque”; or a more widespread swelling under the skin.

Over the course of a few weeks, the original swollen area expands to form an irregularly shaped patch of raised skin. After about four weeks, the affected skin sloughs off leaving a painless ulcer.Buruli ulcers typically have “undermined edges”, the ulcer being a few centimeters wider underneath the skin than the wound itself

In some people, the ulcer may heal on its own or remain small but linger unhealed for years.[4][5] In others, it continues to grow wider and sometimes deeper, with skin at the margin dying and sloughing off. Large ulcers may extend deep into underlying tissue, causing bone infection and exposing muscle, tendon, and bone to the air. When ulcers extend into muscles and tendons, parts of these tissues can be replaced by scar tissue, immobilizing the body part and resulting in permanent disability. Exposed ulcers can be infected by other bacteria, causing the wound to become red, painful, and foul smelling. Symptoms are typically limited to those caused by the wound; the disease rarely affects other parts of the body.

Buruli ulcers can appear anywhere on the body, but are typically on the limbs. Ulcers are most common on the lower limbs (roughly 62% of ulcers globally) and upper limbs (24%), but can also be found on the trunk (9%), head or neck (3%), or genitals (less than 1%).

The World Health Organization classifies Buruli ulcer into three categories depending on the severity of its symptoms. Category I describes a single small ulcer that is less than 5 centimetres (2.0 inches). Category II describes a larger ulcer, up to 15 centimetres (5.9 in), as well as plaques and broader swollen areas that have not yet opened into ulcers. Category III is for an ulcer larger than 15 centimeters, multiple ulcers, or ulcers that have spread to include particularly sensitive sites such as the eyes, bones, joints, or genitals.

Diagnosis

As Buruli ulcer most commonly occurs in low-resource settings, treatment is often initiated by a clinician based on signs and symptoms alone. Where available, diagnosis may then be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect M. ulcerans DNA or microscopy to detect mycobacteria.

Treatment

Buruli ulcer is treated through a combination of antibiotics to kill the bacteria, and wound care or surgery to support the healing of the ulcer. The most widely used antibiotic regimen is once daily oral rifampicin plus twice daily oral clarithromycin, recommended by the World Health Organization. Several other antibiotics are sometimes used in combination with rifampicin, namely ciprofloxacinmoxifloxacinethambutolamikacinazithromycin, and levofloxacin. A 2018 Cochrane review suggested that the many antibiotic combinations being used are effective treatments, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if any combination is the most effective.

Treatment sometimes includes surgery to speed healing by removing necrotic ulcer tissue, grafting healthy skin over the wound, or removing scar tissue that can deform muscles and joints

Prevention of Buruli Ulcer

Buruli ulcer can be prevented by avoiding contact with aquatic environments in endemic areas, although this may not be possible for people living in these areas.The risk of acquiring it can be reduced by wearing long sleeves and pants, using insect repellent, and cleaning and covering any wounds as soon as they are noticed.There is no specific vaccine for preventing Buruli ulcer. The BCG vaccine typically given to children to protect against tuberculosis offers temporary partial protection from Buruli ulcer.


PNEUMONIA

Pneumonia is an infection of the lung tissue caused by various bacterial , viruses or fungi. It happens when an infection causes the air sacs in your lungs (your doctor will call them alveoli) to fill with fluid or pus. That can make it hard for you to breathe in enough oxygen to reach your bloodstream i a lung infection that can range from mild to so severe that you have to go to the hospital.

Anyone can get this lung infection. But infants younger than age 2 and people over age 65 are at higher risk. That’s because their immune systems might not be strong enough to fight it.

Pneumonia types

There are different type of pneumonia, depending on their cause.

  • Bacterial pneumonia: The most common cause is the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), but many different bacteria can cause pneumonia
  • Viral pneumonias; This is cause by syncytia virus (RSV) and influenza types A and B, known as the flu
  • Aspiration pneumonia: This can happen when a person breathes food, liquids, or stomach contents into the lungs. This type is not contagious.
  • Fungal pneumonia: This can results from a condition such as valley fever, caused by the Coccidioides fungus.
  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia: This can occur in patients being treated for other conditions, for example, those attached to a respirator, or breathing machine.

Regardless of the cause, the signs and symptoms will be similar.

Pneumonia symptoms

The first symptoms of pneumonia usually resemble those of a cold or flu. The person then develops a high fever, chills, and cough with sputum.

Common symptoms include:

  • fever
  • cough
  • headache
  • rusty or green phlegm, or sputum, coughed up from lungs
  • fast breathing and shortness of breath
  • shaking chills
  • chest pain that usually worsens when taking a deep breath, known as pleuritic pain
  • fast heartbeat
  • fatigue and weakness
  • nausea and vomiting
  • sweating
  • muscle pain
  • confusion or delirium, especially in older adults

Symptoms can vary depending on other underlying conditions and the type of pneumonia

pnuemonia treatment

Treatment depends on the type and severity of the pneumonia

  • Bacterial types of pneumonia are treated with antibiotics
  • Viral types of pneumonia are usually treated with rest and plenty of fluids. Antiviral medications can be used in influenza.
  • Fungal types of pneumonia are usually treated with antifungal medications.

Doctors commonly prescribe over-the-counter (OTC) medications to help manage the symptoms of pneumonia. These include treatments for reducing fever, reducing aches and pains, and suppressing coughs.

In addition, it is crucial to rest and drink plenty of fluids. Staying hydrated helps to thin out thick phlegm and mucus, making it easier to cough up.

Hospitalization for pneumonia may be required if symptoms are especially bad or if an individual has a weakened immune system or other serious illnesses.

In the hospital, patients are generally treated with intravenous antibiotics and fluids. They may need a supplemental oxygen supply.

Pneumonia complications

Even with treatment, some people with pneumonia, especially those in high-risk groups, may experience complications, including:

  • Bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia). Bacteria that enter the bloodstream from your lungs can spread the infection to other organs, potentially causing organ failure.
  • Difficulty breathing. If your pneumonia is severe or you have chronic underlying lung diseases, you may have trouble breathing in enough oxygen. You may need to be hospitalized and use a breathing machine (ventilator) while your lung heals.
  • Fluid accumulation around the lungs (pleural effusion). Pneumonia may cause fluid to build up in the thin space between layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity (pleura). If the fluid becomes infected, you may need to have it drained through a chest tube or removed with surgery.
  • Lung abscess. An abscess occurs if pus forms in a cavity in the lung. An abscess is usually treated with antibiotics. Sometimes, surgery or drainage with a long needle or tube placed into the abscess is needed to remove the pus.

is pneumonia contagious

The germs that cause pneumonia are contagious. This means they can spread from person to person.

Bacterial and viral  pneumonia can spread to others through inhalation of airborne droplets from a sneeze or cough. You can also get these types of pneumonia by coming into contact with surfaces or objects that are contaminated with pneumonia-causing bacteria or viruses.

You can contract fungal pneumonia from the environment. However, it doesn’t spread from person to person.


Benefits From consuming Garlic

Before we go deep into the benefits of garlic, let’s educate ourselves on the knowledge available about the nature of garlic.

Garlic is genus, Allium; a specie of onion. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and Chinese onion.

It is common with Central Asia and northeastern Iran, and has been a seasoning agent on our diets.

Now, let’s look at few benefits of garlic in our everyday food consumption.

Allicin compound exists in freshly cut or crushed garlic.

Other food compounds that play role in the health benefits of garlic includes diallyl disulfide and s-allyl cysteine.

Trully, if you want the full benefits of garlic. You should eat it raw.

Garlic boosts the immune system. Garlic boots the immune system of the body. Cold and common flu is one the fewer diseases that helps us to check our immune system. If we include garlic in our diets, common flu and cold will not be our problem.

Garlic reduces blood pressure. Garlic in certain amount of dose can drastically reduce high blood pressure .

Garlic reduces bad cholesterol levels. Garlic helps in reducing Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and balancing High-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Garlic improves the function of the brain. Garlic contains antioxidants which counters free radicals causing oxidation and serving as aging factor. And we all know some of the health problems associated with aging includes Dementia and Alzheimer’s.


An avocado a day could lower ‘bad’ cholesterol levels,

We’ve all heard the old saying, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” According to a new study, however, the same may be true for avocados — at least when it comes to lowering “bad” cholesterol levels.

The study, conducted by researchers at Penn State University and published in the Journal of Nutrition, suggests that eating one avocado a day can lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the type of cholesterol considered to be “bad.” High levels of LDL can build up within blood vessel walls, sometimes causing a stroke or heart attack, per the Mayo Clinic.

On the other hand, high-density lipoprotein, or HDL, is often regarded as “good” cholesterol.

For the study, researchers recruited 45 adults who were either overweight or obese. For the first two weeks, participants ate a diet that “mimicked an average American diet,” which allowed all those involved to “begin the study on similar nutritional ‘footing,’” according to a news release regarding the study. 

Later, the participants were separated at random into three groups. Each group either followed a low-fat diet, a moderate-fat diet, or a moderate-fat diet that also involved eating an avocado each day.

Five weeks later, those who ate an avocado each day “had significantly lower levels of oxidized LDL cholesterol than before the study began or after completing the low- and moderate-fat diets,” per the news release. “Participants also had higher levels of lutein, an antioxidant, after the avocado diet.”

In other words, the researchers determined that avocados may be able to lower oxidized LDL particles. Oxidation can negatively affect the human body.

“When you think about bad cholesterol, it comes packaged in LDL particles, which vary in size. All LDL is bad, but small, dense LDL is particularly bad. A key finding was that people on the avocado diet had fewer oxidized LDL particles. They also had more lutein, which may be the bioactive that’s protecting the LDL from being oxidized,” said Penny Kris-Etherton, distinguished professor of nutrition, in a statement.

“A lot of research points to oxidation being the basis for conditions like cancer and heart disease,” Kris-Etherton added. “We know that when LDL particles become oxidized, that starts a chain reaction that can promote atherosclerosis, which is the build-up of plaque in the artery wall. Oxidation is not good, so if you can help protect the body through the foods that you eat, that could be very beneficial.”

That said, Kris-Etherton did note that more research is needed to understand the more nuanced health benefits of avocados, which are already known to be full of important nutrients – such as vitamin K and potassium – as well as fiber, heart-healthy fatty acids and antioxidants.


Three Colorado police officers ‘no longer employed’ after arrest of 73-year-old woman with dementia


U.S. NEWS

Three Colorado police officers ‘no longer employed’ after arrest of 73-year-old woman with dementia

A fourth officer, Sgt. Philip Metzler, was also placed on administrative leave but was not among those who lost their jobs.00:06 /02:37TAP TO UNMUTE

Body camera video shows police force 78-year-old woman with dementia to ground

April 30, 2021, 6:52 PM GMT / Updated April 30, 2021, 11:28 PM GMTBy Minyvonne Burke

Three Loveland, Colorado, police officers are no longer employed with the department after their involvement in the arrest and booking of a 73-year-old woman with dementia.

Karen Garner suffered a dislocated shoulder, fractured arm and sprained wrist after she was slammed to the ground and hogtied during a June 26 arrest, according to a federal lawsuit.

The altercation was captured on police body camera video and shared by Garner’s attorney, Sarah Schielke.

Officers Austin Hopp, Tyler Blackett and Daria Jalali were placed on administrative leave over the incident, along with Sgt. Phillip Metzler. Another sergeant, Antolina Hill, was reassigned.

Loveland Police Chief Robert Ticer said at a news conference Friday that Hopp, Blackett and Jalali “are no longer employed” with the department but declined to specify whether they resigned or were terminated.

It’s unclear why Metzler and Hill were not among those no longer with the department.


Gingivitis

An inflammation of the gums surrounding the teeth which affects a significant portion of the population and a common periodontal disease.

This inflammation of the gingiva is classified according to severity. It can range from mild to severe gingivitis and more uncommon but serious necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

  • Inflammation is a complex system by which bacteria-fighting cells of the body are recruited to an area of bacterial infection. Inflammation plays a major role in gingivitis. It is this inflammation of the gums that accounts for most of the symptoms of gingivitis.
  • Bacteria can cause inflammation of the gums. Although bacteria are normally found in our bodies and provide protective effects most of the time, bacteria can be harmful. The mouth is an ideal place for bacteria to live. The warm, moist environment and constant food supply are everything bacteria need to thrive. If not for a healthy immune system, bacteria in the mouth would rapidly reproduce out of control, overwhelming the body’s defense system.
  • An infection begins when the body’s immune system is overwhelmed. The gum disease of gingivitis is an infection that occurs when bacteria invade soft tissues and bone adjacent to teeth. The severity of this infection varies from mild to severe and can be an indication of a life-threatening systemic disease.

What Are Gingivitis Symptoms and Signs?

  • The presence of dental plaque, a sticky substance on the teeth, will inevitably cause gingivitis.
  • Swelling, redness, pain, and bleeding of the gums are signs of gingivitis. Swelling of the gums is referred to as gingival hyperplasia.
  • Receding gums are a sign of gingivitis that may be advancing into periodontal disease
  • Loose teeth or tooth loss in the presence of gum inflammation is a sign of gingivitis and periodontal disease.
  • Halitosis (bad breath ) , in which the breath begins to take on a foul odor, may be present in more severe forms of gingivitis.

How Do You Treat Gingivitis?

For simple gingivitis, work with a dentist. A concerted effort involving good home denta hygiene, including regular and correct brushing and flossing, and regular dental visits should be all that is required to treat and prevent gingivitis. Gingivitis can usually be managed at home with good dental hygiene.

If gingivitis continues despite the effort to prevent it, contact a doctor to investigate the possibility of an underlying illness. If there are other conditions that seem to be coinciding with the signs and symptoms of gingivitis, seek medical attention. For example, chronic gingivitis and periodontitis are felt by medical scientists to be risk factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

One complication of gingivitis may be the presence of ulcers on the gums — if rampant, this could be a sign of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and will require medical diagnosis and treatment.


Spring, the most inspiring of the seasons (this year especially)

(CNN)As the end of the pandemic tunnel gets brighter and brighter, has a season ever better aligned with where most people are in the world right now?Spring is the season of hope — that things will get better after they were worse. The river will “flow again after it was frozen,” Ernest Hemingway wrote of spring in “A Moveable Feast.” Change is a-comin’, and everything is going to be better for it.”If we had no winter, the spring would not be so pleasant,” wrote English poet Anne Bradstreet. “If we did not sometimes taste of adversity, prosperity would not be so welcome.”Spring is arguably the most profound of the seasons in terms of its meaning, promise, inspiration and experiences. It is the season of new starts and ideas bursting from the ground like the return of grass, daffodils and cherry blossoms.


Snake venom is a boon in search for life-saving drugs

(CNN)Over the summer, Chicago-based cardiologist Dr. Sandeep Nathan received a phone call that a patient was in trouble.Every minute that went by put the patient more atrisk. In his mid-30s, he was suffering from a massive heart attack with excessive blood clotting in the vessels around his heart. He had also tested positive for Covid-19.Several studies have shown that coronavirus impacts more than just the lungs and respiratory system — including the heart. “There is an acute inflammatory response, increased blood clotting and cardiac involvement,” cardiologist Dr. Nieca Goldberg, medical director of New York University’s Women’s Heart Program, previously told CNN Health. Goldberg is also a senior adviser for women’s health strategy at NYU Langone Health.

Before beginning a procedure to clear the vessels and put in stents, Nathan and his team administered blood thinners, including Integrilin, to help break up the clots.

The US Food and Drug Administration first approved Integrilin in 1998, and medical professionals commonly prescribe it to heart attack patients. But what manypeople don’t realize is the drug was originally derived from a protein found in the venom of the pygmy rattlesnake.

“Several hundred thousand heart attacks occur in the United States every year, and a significant proportion of these heart attacks are treated with agents, which unbeknownst to both the physician and patient, are actually derived from animal venom,” said Nathan, director ofthe University of Chicago Medicine’s Coronary Care Unit and co-director of its Cardiac Catheterization Lab.”There’s a bit of a misconception that drug development, particularly with antiplatelets or anticoagulants, is now passé — that we’ve discovered everything that we need to know,” he added. “In my opinion, nothing could be further from the truth.”http://Snake venom is a boon in search for life-saving drugs