Depression is a mental health condition that causes persistent feeling of sadness or lonlinness that do not go away.Depression can affect any age group.
Depression is the main cause of disability worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It can affect all age group(adults, adolescents, and children.)
- Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies or activities
- Decreased energy, fatigue, or being “slowed down”
- Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
- Difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
- Appetite and/or weight changes
- Thoughts of death or suicide or suicide attempts
- loss of sexual desire
- agitation, restlessness, and pacing up and down
- slowed movement and speech
- feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decision
- Symptoms must last at least two weeks for a diagnoSymptoms must last at least two weeks for a diagnosis of depression.
- Also, medical conditions (e.g., thyroid problems, a brain tumor or vitamin deficiency) can mimic symptoms of depression so it is important to rule out general medical causes.
- Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given year. And one in six people (16.6%) will experience depression at some time in their life. Depression can start at any time, but it appears mostly during the late teens to mid-20s. Women are more likely than men to experience depression.
- Depression causes
There are many possible causes, and sometimes, various factors combine to trigger symptoms.
Factors that are likely to play a role include:
- Biochemistry: Differences in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression.
- Genetics: Depression can run in families. For example, if one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70 percent chance of having the illness sometime in life.
- Personality: People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be more likely to experience depression.
- Environmental factors: Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make some people more vulnerable to depression
- Mental health condition like bipolar disorder can also cause depression
- Depression can occur along with other serious illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease.
Depression is treatable, and managing symptoms usually involves three components:
Support: This can range from discussing practical solutions and possible causes to educating family members.
Psychotherapy: also known as Talking therapies which involve speaking to a mental health professional about problems or issues that may be causing concern. Types of talking therapies include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), counselling and psychotherapy, and your GP can advise you about which approach you may find most helpful.
Medication treatment: A doctor may prescribe Antidepressants.These can be taken on their own or in conjunction with talking therapies.
There are various types of antidepressants available and you can speak with your doctor about what work best for you. If one medication does not work, you may be prescribed something else. It is important that you take the medicine for the length of time recommended by your doctor.
Many people with depression recover after following a treatment plan. Even with effective treatment, a relapse may occur.
To prevent relapse, people who take medication for depression should continue with treatment — even after symptoms improve or go away — for as long as their doctor advises.